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By Dawn Stewart, B.Sc, MPA, PHDIt is noted in much research that violence against infants and younger children is a major risk factorDawn Stewartfor psychiatric disorders and suicide, and has lifelong sequelae including depression, anxiety disorders, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse, aggression and violence towards others, risky sexual behaviours and post-traumatic stress disorders, all of which we have seen in some degree over the most recent years.There is a marked increase in suicides as well as alcohol use, drug use, aggression and violence within the vulnerable group.The spread of intentional physical and mental violence against children from their parents or guardians has been extensively noticeable and revealed over the last few years in Guyana. By becoming more transparent, the violence that is committed against children, we discover that children are more susceptible to becoming victims of violence than adults.The dependency of children – and especially traditional belief that parents and grownups have total rights over children – has exposed them to violence. On top of this, traditional belief that says children are not reliable witnesses has time and time again resulted in not listening or ignoring children’s complaints or cries for help.It is a crying shame for mankind, when the smallest and most vulnerable members of the human race must wait longer than others to have the right to physical health and their social identity be recognised by all, and be protected from violence.In this article I will use the definition of violence as “a kind of intentional behaviour of people towards people that could inflict physical or mental injuries”.According to World Health Organization (WHO) the term child abuse is any behaviour directed toward a child by a parent, guardian, caregiver, other family member, or other adult, that endangers or impairs a child’s physical or emotional health and development.Any form of sexual exploitation for the fulfilment of sexual needs such as,Cheap Jerseys Wholesale, sexual intercourse, touching up, and any kind of behaviour that is sexual towards children, is deemed sexual child abuse.Sexual child abuse like other forms of violence against children is not something new, however due to its increasing transparency throughout all societies there are positive moves that are taken in support of children. It seems that most sexual child abuse cases take place within the home and by their relatives; although it does not go without saying that it does not take place outside of the family either.Just like physical violence identifying sexual abuse against children is followed by identifying sexual abuse against women,Deion Jones Falcons Jersey UK, in the majority of cases those that commit sexual abuse are men, in Guyana assault or sex without consent regardless of age is against the law and prohibited. The definition of sexual exploitation of children includes any sexual activity that either is done without consent or even the child’s consent is not legally standing. According to the definition, any form of sexual activity with the adults in the family is a crime. Studies indicate that incest is usually committed by men of the family, the father, brother or uncle.Young girls are more threatened with the dangers of sexual exploitation. The numbers of girl children who are sexually exploited are higher than any other group. On top of this, pornography, which is a derivation of sexual exploitation of children and especially organized sexual exploitation, is the publication of the fundamentally shameful act against children.  With the wide use of cell phones in Guyana there has been an increase of this type of sexual exploitation.In this form of child abuse, not only photos and films of children are published and/or circulated, but other children can be in danger of exposure and viewing of these obscene images.Unfortunately, despite all attempts, child pornography has increased on the Internet and other new technologies.WHAT ABOUT NEGLECT?Child neglect is the continued failure to provide a child with necessary care and protection including adequate shelter, food, clothing, medical care, etc. Lack of appropriate supervision, especially for young children, for extended periods of time is also considered child neglect. Signs of possible neglect include:– Appears poorly nourished or inadequately clothed;– Appears consistently tired or listless;– Inconsistent attendance at school;– Lack of good hygiene or an obsession with cleanliness;– Is regularly left alone in dangerous situations, or over long periods of time;– Exhibits evidence that medical needs are not being met;– Unable to relate well to adults or has trouble forming close relationships.EMOTIONAL AND MENTAL ABUSEChildren, especially dependent children, are particularly vulnerable to mental abuse committed by their parents and others. Different forms of this type of violence can be from cursing and reproach,Cheap Jerseys Wholesale, to humiliation and insults, all of which result in the alienation and harassment of the child.Article 19 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child uses the term “emotional violence”, and points to the necessity to pay attention to the direct and indirect effects of domestic violence against children.Studies on domestic violence have shown that acts of mental or physical violence committed by parents to each other leave deep emotional scars on the children.Children that are subjected to emotional violence and humiliation by their parents or teachers, lack in self-confidence and suffer from emotional problems during adulthood. These individuals caught in the cycle of violence could possibly become violent in adulthood.HOW YOU CAN HELPParenting is one of the toughest and most important jobs in the world and we all have a stake in ensuring that parents have access to the resources and support they need to be successful. Entire communities play a role in helping families find the strength they need to raise safe, healthy, and productive children.Here are some things you can do:•    Get to know your neighbours. Problems seem less overwhelming when support is nearby.•    Help a family under stress. Offer to babysit, help with chores and errands, or suggest resources in the community that can help.•    Reach out to children in your community. A smile or a word of encouragement can mean a lot, whether it comes from a parent or a passing stranger.•    Be an active community member. Lend a hand at local schools, community or faith-based organizations, NGOs, hospitals, human service agencies, or other places where families and children are supported.•    Keep your neighbourhood safe. Start a Neighborhood Watch or plan a local “Community Night Out” community event. You will get to know your neighbours while helping to keep your neighbourhood and children safe.•    Learn how to recognize and report signs of child abuse and neglect. Reporting your concerns may protect a child and get help for a family who needs it.CHILD ABUSE IN GUYANAApproximately 46% of our population is under 18 years of age,Bryan Bickell Jersey, and Guyana is one of the youngest societies in the world. Child abuse and exploitation in this country is the same as anywhere else, in four ways: physical,Cheap NFL Jerseys Supply, sexual, emotional and neglect.There are laws in Guyana that meet the requirements based on the Convention on the Rights of the Child – the subject of child abuse is being afforded serious attention.Most child abuse cases in Guyana are carried out by those very near to the child in who the child often have a certain degree of trust.Based on surveys, the elements of child abuse can be linked to the following conditions in Guyana: Poverty, Addiction (mainly alcohol), Lack of parental skills, Psychological imbalance (such as depression and anxiety).Also out of these are the patriarchal cultural factors, as well as the existence of sexual discrimination between boys and girls.Other factors which increase abuse include the existence of weaknesses in the legal system in terms of delayed trials, proper and timely investigations, and parents’ acceptance of monetary settlements for offences against their children.Child abuse and neglect can be prevented. Local governments, community organizations, and private citizens take action every day to protect children. You can help.Research has shown that parents and caregivers who have support—from family,Alex Iwobi Arsenal Jersey UK, friends, neighbours, and their communities—are more likely to provide safe and healthy homes for their children. When parents lack this support or feel isolated, on the other hand, they may be more likely to make poor decisions that can lead to neglect or abuse.Increasingly, we believe that concerned citizens and organizations are realizing that the best way to prevent child abuse is to help parents develop the skills and identify the resources they need to understand and meet their children’s emotional, physical, and developmental needs and protect their children from harm.
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